In-order for objects in 3ds max to be rendered as volumes with Arnold, the object mesh has to be converted to a volume, and a Standard Volume material assigned to the object:
Add an Arnold Properties modifier to the object.
Under Volume set the Step Size to a value higher than 0.0.
Assign a Standard Volume material to the object and set it’s parameters to design the volumetric effect:
* Note that both Density and Depth control the transparency or ‘thickness’ of the volume. (lower Depth setting creates a thicker volume)
* When Scattering is set to 0.0 the volume will have only a absorption effect
In this example an Arnold Noise map is connected to the Standard Volume‘s Density parameter:
* Note that the Scale values must be set correctly in order to actually get a ‘cloudy’ effect.
* Note that the noise color values are now controlling the Density of the volume.
The Subsurface component of the Arnold Standard Surface shader (aiStandardSurface) controls Sub Surface Scattering (SSS).
When the ‘Thin Walled’ option is checked in the Geometry attributes of the shader, the Subsurface isn’t rendered as a full volume of material like soap or skin/flesh (the effect that is traditionally called Subsurface Scattering – SSS) but as a thin paper-like translucent surface like paper, thin cloth thin leaves, lamp shades etc. (the effect traditionally called Translucency or ‘Paper Shader’)
* Note that this option is suitable mainly for polygon surfaces without thickness (just one side)
To create a Translucent shader with Arnold:
Subsurface Weight must be higher than 0.0 for the effect to be computed.
In Geometry, check Thin Walled for the SSS to be rendered as Translucency (Paper Shader).
Use samplerInfo Node Facing Ratio output in Subsurface weight to add realism by changing the weight by angle.
Multiply weave texture with Facing Ratio to simulate fabric translucency.