A simple way to create a snow material in V-Ray for 3ds max is to combine a VRayFastSSS2 material with a VRayFlakesMtl using a VRayBlendMtl.
The VRayFastSSS2 creates the soft translucent shading for the snow, and the VRayFlakesMtls adds sparkling highlights.
Note that depending on the scene and view scale,
The VRayFlakesMtls ‘flake glossiness’, ‘flake density’ and ‘flake size’ have to be tweaked to achieve the wanted result.
The Arnold Standard Surface Shader’s Transmission Scattering options can be used for simulating highly realistic volumetrically ray-traced sub-surface-scattering suitable for materials like wax, soap, milk etc.
While the Transmission Depth attribute controls volumetric light absorption within the object (fog), the Scatter attribute controls what percentage of the light will be scattered instead of absorbed, effectively creating the murky effect of semi-transparent materials.
Note that for the scattering effect to work Scatter must have a dominant percentage value, and the Depth attribute must generally be much lower (shallower) than what would create coloring without scattering, otherwise the object will continue to look transparent and lacking the internal substance that we want to simulate.
Also note that the Opaque attribute must be unchecked in the Arnold attributes of the object’s shape node for the light to be able to pass into the mesh and illuminate the volume.
*This is actually a “cheat”, because physical semi-transparency has to be simulated by indirect light calculation or caustics, but for dense volumes like wax it’s very effective and the loss of realism is insignificant.
The Subsurface component of the Arnold Standard Surface shader (aiStandardSurface) controls Sub Surface Scattering (SSS).
When the ‘Thin Walled’ option is checked in the Geometry attributes of the shader, the Subsurface isn’t rendered as a full volume of material like soap or skin/flesh (the effect that is traditionally called Subsurface Scattering – SSS) but as a thin paper-like translucent surface like paper, thin cloth thin leaves, lamp shades etc. (the effect traditionally called Translucency or ‘Paper Shader’)
* Note that this option is suitable mainly for polygon surfaces without thickness (just one side)
To create a Translucent shader with Arnold:
Subsurface Weight must be higher than 0.0 for the effect to be computed.
In Geometry, check Thin Walled for the SSS to be rendered as Translucency (Paper Shader).
Use samplerInfo Node Facing Ratio output in Subsurface weight to add realism by changing the weight by angle.
Multiply weave texture with Facing Ratio to simulate fabric translucency.