3ds max 2020
Using the GradientRamp procedural texture map in Mapped mode can very useful for creating procedural material effects.
The Idea is that the lightness value from a different map will determine what part of the GradientRamp is sampled.
In this example the GradientRamp uses values produced by a procedural Falloff map set to Perpendicular-Parallel mode, as its coordinates source, to create richly colored metal that changes its Hue depending on View/Incident angle:
In this example the GradientRamp uses values produced by a procedural Noise map as its coordinates source to create an irregular color effect:
The examples here were rendered using V-Ray Next for 3ds max, but this technique could also be used with other rendering engines.